on MANUAL WORK OF STOCK
- Manual stock and computer
- Executing C++ programs
- What is C
- Features of C
- History of C++
- Advantages of C++
- Difference between C & C++
- Introduction about the
- Creation and execution of
- Brief description on the
- Advantages and
disadvantages of the project
- Limitations in the program
MANUAL WORK OF
Earlier the Stock operation
was carried out manually. This approach had many drawbacks such as:
was time consuming process.
was difficult to maintain records properly.
was altogether a less efficient system.
of stationery incurred was also high.
personal required accomplishing the task.
In all, the
old system was an inefficient and confusing system.
NEW PROPOSED SYSTEM
computerization of stock, we have now a system having following advantages
Least time consuming.
• No maintenance of records required.
• Increase in efficiency.
• Minimum cost of stationery.
• Now task can be performed with minimum manpower.
Selection of an appropriate Operating System and Programming Language is
very important for any project. The selection basically depends upon the
nature and requirements of the Project.
WHAT IS WINDOWS?
MS-Windows is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) operating system. Windows
provide a multitasking environment, enabling the user to run several
applications at a time. Since Windows use a consistence windowing and menu
structure for its applications, windows applications are easier to learn and
use than traditional DOS based programs. Windows offer relief from many of
the tedious and painful tasks involved with developing applications that
Windows and applications designed for windows offer many advantages over
other GUI’s to both the user and programmer. Users enjoy the benefits of
features such as point-and-click capabilities and multitasking. Programmers
find the device independent graphics and enhanced memory management, very
ADVANTAGES TO USERS
Windows and its applications have consistent user interface. Because most
users work with several different software packages, each with it’s own
interface, the consistency of user interface’s design is very important.
Each window in the windows environment contains some basic features. Since
these features are consistent among all applications user can adapt new
applications more conveniently. Windows user gets all benefits from
graphics-based images that represent applications and data. Since Windows is
GUI graphic images represent physical data structures such as files,
applications, windows and directories.
We can manipulate these physical data structures with a mouse by selecting,
double clicking and dragging and so forth. Double clicking an icon (a small
picture that represents an application), is easier and faster than typing
cryptic commands to navigate directories and then typing the name of the
file to launch the program. WYSIWYG is a major advantage to windows user. It
stands for What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get, i.e. text and graphics appear on
printing just the same as they appear on screen. Most non-windows soft wares
use the ROM-BIOS character sets, which are not proportional and have no
direct co-relation to the font used by an application, the text displayed on
screen usually does not corresponds to resulting the text output on the
printer. With the WYSIWYG features, however, windows can treat text as a
series of graphical images that are drawn on the screen, as they will appear
when printed. Windows also provide the very important capability of
multitasking. Because several applications can run simultaneously we do not
have to save the file we are working on and exit the current application to
enter the other applications. We can simply keep several programs running
side by side and switch among then at our will. Memory Management
capabilities enhance multitasking. Windows provide access to all available
memory resources, so we can optimize the system more easily.
EXECUTING C++ PROGRAMS UNDER WINDOWS
C++ is one of the most popular languages due to its power and portability.
It is available for different operating system such as DOS, OS/2, UNIX,
WINDOWS and many others. C++ programs when implemented under windows are
called Visual C++ programs. Therefore, there is no difference between C++
and Visual C++ programs in terms of programming but the difference lies in
terms of implementation.
A C++ compiler designed for implementing under Windows is known as a Visual
C++. A C++ program running under MS-DOS will also run successfully under
Windows. This is because, the rules of programming are the same; only the
environment of implementation is different and is shown below.
A C++ programmer can easily become a Visual C++
programmer if he knows how to use the implementation tools of his Visual C++
What is C?
C is a programming language developed at AT & T’s Bell Laboratories of USA
in 1972. It was designed and written by a man named Dennis Ritchie. When he
invented C, he virtually opened the floodgates to a new revolution in the
world of software. C is a programmer’s dream comes true. It combines the
portability and power of low-level computer languages with the flexibility
of third generation languages. This unique combination has elevated the
language to he status of an indispensable tool for the applications
programmer and the systems programmer alike
Possibly why C seems so popular is because it is reliable, simple and easy
Where C stands
Let us now see how does C compare with other programming languages. All the
programming languages can be divided into two categories:
(a) Problem oriented languages or High-level languages: These languages have
been designed to give a better programming efficiency, i.e. faster program
development. Examples of languages falling in this category are FORTRAN,
BASC, PASCAL, etc.
(b) Machine oriented languages or low-level languages: These languages have
been designed to give a better machine efficiency, i.e. faster program
execution. Examples of languages falling in this category are Assembly
language and Machine language.
C stands in between these two categories. That’s why it is often called a
Middle level language, since it was designed to have both: a relatively good
programming efficiency (as compared to Machine oriented languages) and
relatively good machine efficiency (as compared to Problem oriented
FEATURES OF C LANGUAGE
C language posses the powerful low-level features of second-generation
languages, like pointers, memory allocation, bit manipulation, etc. It also
supports conditional constructs, loop constructs, a rich list of operators
and a variety of data structures as in third generation languages.
The combined features of second and third generation languages make C
language a very powerful and flexible language. These features of C language
make it possible to use the language for systems programming, like
development of compilers, interpreters, operating systems, graphics and
general utilities, and also for a host of applications in the commercial
C language is so powerful and flexible that C compilers are being written in
earlier versions of C language. Also, other language compilers, databases,
spreadsheets, word processors, etc. are being developed in C language.
Some of the features showing the power of C are listed below:
C language like other languages, allows reference to a memory location
by a name assigned to it. In addition, C allows reference to a memory
location by its internal address or byte number, using pointers.
• Memory Allocation:
In almost all programming languages, memory is assigned to a variable
name at the time of definition. C language also allows dynamic allocation of
memory i.e. a program itself can request the operating system to release
memory for the use of the program at the time of execution.
A function may call itself again and again. This feature, called
recursion, is supported by C language.
Unlike other languages, C allows manipulation of data in its lowest form
of storage – BITS. For example, consider multiplication of a number, m by 2.
A familiar method to do so is to compute (m*2). Another method is to shift
the BITS of memory location m to the left by one position as shown in table.
Value in m
representation of value in memory
representation of value in memory after BIT shift
Value in m
( after BIT shift )
HISTORY OF C++
C++ is an object oriented programming language. It was developed by
Bjarne Stroustrup at AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, USA,
in the early 1980’s. Stroustrup wanted to combine the best of Simula67 and C
language and create a more powerful language that could support object
oriented programming features and still retain the power and elegance of C.
The result was C++. Therefore, C++ is an extension of C with a major
addition of the class construct feature of Simula67. Since the class was a
major addition to the C language, Stroustrup initially called the new
language ‘C with classes’. However, later in 1983, the name was changed to
C++. The idea of C++ comes from the C increment operator ++, thereby
suggesting that C++ is an incremented version of C.
C++ is the most widely used object oriented language today. It is faster
than JAVA, another popular object oriented language, which lacks certain
features such as pointers and multiple inheritance.
C++ has been undergoing changes during the last few years. They are
basically meant to provide better control and conveniences to the C++
programmers. The ANSI/ISO C++ standard committee that reviewed all the
changes has standardized several new features. The Standard Template Library
(STL) that was developed independently has now become a part of the C++
language. C++ is now called ANSI C++ or ANSI/ISO C++ or simply C++.
Programming pandits expect that C++ will replace C as a general purpose
programming language because C++ offers significant software engineering
benefits over C. C++ is the language of the future.
C++ is a superset of C. Mostly what we know about C applies to C++ also.
Therefore, almost all C programs are all C++ programs. However there are a
few minor differences that will prevent a c program to run under C++
compiler. The most important facilities that C++ adds on to C are classes,
inheritance, function overloading, and operator overloading. These features
enable creating of abstract data types, inherit properties from existing
data types and support polymorphism, thereby making C++ a truly object
The object oriented features in C++ allow programmers to build large
programs with clarity, extensibility and ease of maintenance, incorporating
the spirit and efficiency of C. The addition of new features has transformed
C from a language that currently facilitates top-down, structure design, to
one that provides bottom-up, object-oriented design.
APPLICATIONS OF C++
C++ is a versatile language for handling very large programs. It is suitable
for virtually any programming task including development of editors,
compilers, database, communication systems and any complex real-life
• Since C++ allows us to create hierarchy-related objects, we can build
special object oriented libraries, which can be used later by many
• While C++ is able to map the real-world problem properly, the C part of
C++ gives the language the ability to get close to the machine-level
• C++ programs are easily maintainable and expandable. When a new feature
needs to be implemented, I is very easy to add the existing structure of an
• It is expected that C++ will replace C as a general- purpose language in
the near future.
C++ allows to design
a software in such a way hat the elements of problem are concentrated at one
place rather than scattering in entire program.
This allows for easy maintenance of the software.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN C AND C++
• C requires all the declarations to be made at the beginning of the scope;
C++ permits us to make declarations at any point in the program. This
enables us to place the declarations closer to the point of their use.
• In order to add new features, it was necessary to create a number of
keywords. Some of these are Class, Friend, Private, Public, Protected,
Virtual, etc. C programs using any of these keywords as identifies are not
• In C, the character constants are of type int. C++ treats the character
constants as type char. This is necessary because the compiler needs to
distinguish between the two overloaded functions based on their arguments.
When writing program
in C language, we implement the solution for an instance of the problem.
The drawback of this type of programming is:
Since it implements the solution, any changes in nature of the problem are
not supported and the program doesn’t serve any purpose.
The most important drawback of this type of programming is that it is
instance dependent. Thus, the complexity of program increases as the number
of instances of problem increases.
When writing a
program in C++ we implement the problem itself as a type so that any no. of
instances of the problem can be created on demand.
The advantages of this type of programming are:
• Since it implements the problem itself, any change in the nature of
problem can be instantaneously and easily accommodated in the program.
• The most important advantage of this type of programming is that it is
instance independent. Thus, he complexity of program isn’t affected as no.
of instances of the problem increases.
INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE PROJECT
Shopper’s paradise is software designed for ENGINEERS DEPARTMENTAL STORE.
The software is designed to take care of sales, purchases, opening and
closing stocks maintenance as well as computation and printing of bill.
The program provides user with a menu of suite. According to user’s choice
the available commodities with their respective rates are shown. Again,
according to user’s choice certain commodity with its quantity is entered.
After every purchase program asks the user choice for further purchases.
With the use of data file handling the bill is prepared. When the user
finishes with shopping, an invoice containing details relevant to the system
is generated. Outstanding report helps in finding out the payment status of
customer and discount/surprise gift for the user.
For the users convenience the software has been designed such that there
shopping become easy and with ease of time they be able to do shopping via
CREATION AND EXECUTION OF PROGRAM
Executing a computer program written in any high-level language involves
several steps, as listed below:
1. Develop the program (source code).
2. Select a suitable file name under which you would like to store the
3. Create the program in the computer and save it under the filename you
have decided. This file is known as source code file.
4. Compile the source code. The file containing the translated code is
called object code file. If there are any errors, debug them and compile the
5. Link the object with other library code that are required for execution.
The resulting code is called the executable code. If there are errors in
linking, correct them and compile the program again.
6. Run the execution code and obtain the results, if here are no errors.
7. Debug the program, if errors are found in the output.
8. Go to step 4 and repeat the process again.
These steps are illustrated in the diagram.
FOR THE CUSTOMERS -
• The customer can get all general-purpose items at his convenience without
wasting his time.
• They can also purchase those brands, which are not available in their
• It is user friendly and appeals to the customers.
• No cash transactions.
• User can demand for the desired quantity, as he would not have to carry it
FOR THE ORGANIZATION -
• There’s no need for opening shop-outlets so space and money is saved.
• Not necessary to keep stock all time, it can also be filled as soon s the
• As there’s not much stock kept so there’s less chances of the stock to get
• No need for appointing salesman, cashier etc as this work is done by the
DISADVANTAGES OF THIS PROJECT
FOR THE CUSTOMERS –
• There is no assurity that the products purchased by customers will be
delivered on time.
• There can be a misuse of the credit card details of the customer.
• The customer may be cheated for the quality of the products purchased.
• The non-registered companies are fooling some times customers as they take
money but not deliver the items.
FOR THE ORGANIZATION –
• The company has no record of the customers, so they can cheat the company.
• In case of cheaque payment there may occur chances when the cheaque gets
• Sometimes the customers address is very difficult to find and hence the
items are not been dispatched on time and the blame comes on to the company.
“To every coin there are two sides”, similarly, the project developed by me
also has some limitations.
These are as follows: -
1. The user has to PRESS ENTER key when the page “CYBER SUITE SHOPPING”
2. The user is not aware of the amount of the stock available in the store.
3. When the user buy something from one category, he cannot buy another
thing from the same category i.e. if he buys from Chocolates Perk-3 he
cannot buy fruit n nut with it, he has to go back to main menu and buy it
via category Chocolates.
4. The users are unaware of the fact that on certain amount of purchases
they will be given different gifts.
After we have completed this project we are sure that the problems in
existing system would overcome some of which are discussed before. The
Internet shopping is computerized to reduce human errors and to increase
efficiency. The focus of this project is to reduce human errors. The
problems that existed in the original manual system have been reduced. It is
expected that this project will go a long way in satisfying user
After completing this project we gained a deep knowledge of C++. We also
learned how to manage a project, how to analyze, design, test and debug the