Training Reports (updated)
Seminar Reports (updated
Placement Papers (updated)
Wireline telephone service is basically the Plain Old Telephone Service (POI) given to customers the pair of copper wire from the exchange to their premises in order to provide voice and data transmission.
Fixed Telecommunication Network
A telecommunication network permits the transmission of sound, video, computer data in between the telephone or other terminal devices.
A transmission system is a means by which information passes one point to another. It comprises transmission medium and transmission interface equipment.
A switching system is a system, which allows the temporary connection of the telephone or other terminal devices of the calling party with the telephone or the other terminal devices of any other party selected by the one party.
Network Architecture (Wire Line)
The switching function is performed by an exchange. In the Shyam Telecom there is one exchange located at Vaishali Nagar, Jaipur in Rainbow Tower.
A number of nodes are connected in a ring fashion each other or to the exchange. From one Node the connection to the subscriber are provided in the range of 2-3 km area. Connections between Nodes or Exchange are by means of Optical Fiber Cable. The signals between Nodes and Exchange move in the form of light. A Node consist of these equipment :
∑ Spare Box : It is just a box to keep the Optical Fiber Cable of length of about 100 meters. The extra length of Optical Fiber Cable is taken in spare due to these reasons :
1. If there is a need to shift the Node with in the range of 100 meters.
2. If the OFC is damaged then there is no need to replace the whole cable.
∑ Patch Panel : In the patch panel E1ís are dropped from the Optical fiber cable. E1 is a type of media (a stream of 2 MB) to carry the signals or data of subscribers in particular format. One E1 supports 32 channels, in which 30 channels are for subscribers. One for signaling and one for the purpose of synchronization.
∑ SDH : SDH is Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. It is an which carries the multiple E1ís in particular format. The SDH brings the following advantages to the network providers:
1. High Transmission Rates
2. Simplified Add & Drop Function
3. High Availability and Capacity Matching
5. Future-Proof Platform for New Series
∑ DDF : DDF is Digital Distribution frame. It is type of break point, which connects Microwave and protocol.
∑ Any-Media : Any-media is a concentrator, a brand name of Lucent Technologies, which supports multiple subscribers. Any-Media is a kind of access transmission equipment which convert digital signals into the analog signal and vice versa. There are two types of Any-Media
AC Any-Media : it supports 500 subscribers.
DC Any-media : it supports 1500 subscribers.
Any-Media has three types of application cards :
1. LPZ : This card is for normal subscribers (for household connection), 32 (thirty two) subscribers can be supported by the one LPZ card.
2. LPP : This card is for STD, PCO 24 (twenty-four) subscribers can be supported by one card. A 16 kHz pulse is generated by this card to drive the billing machine of STD, PCO.
3. LPU : This card is for ISDN connections. One card supports 12 (twelve) subscribers. Is provided with two numbers one is for voice communication and other number is for data communication.
Other cards in Any-Media are :
Condac Card : there are two condac cards. These card are main processor or programming card. At one time one card is active and the other one is passive. These cards have redundancy, if one card fails the control goes to the other one automatically.
CIU Card : these cards are interface cards of Any-Media.
The other substitutes of Any-Media are :
DLC stands for Digital Loop Carrier. This is developed by the Germany. All the application cards used in it are of same type. These cards have reversal facility, 16 kHz pulse generation. It has two main control cards with redundancy. DLC can work at room temperature so the air conditioner is not required.
It is similar to the UTSTAR DLC. It is developed by Shyam telecommunication and Indian Institute of technology (IIT) Chennai. The capacity of Midas DLC is less than UTSTAR DLC. Relays are used for alarm (minor or major). PC is connected to the DLC to store the information of any alarm in the absence of Node incharge. DLC has these cards
SWIP : Switch Processor card
SPVC : Supervisory card
FLEC : FLEC card
POTC : Line card
BRIC : Basic Rate Interface card
PWSP : Power supply card
RAX is Rural Automatic Exchange. All programming parts are at the Node itself. It has AC change over facility. RAX has
CCB : Coin Collection Box Card
RCP : RAX Control Processor
SPC : Signal Processor Card
It is a small model of Any-Media, developed by Lucent. It has almost the same features as Any-Media.
MDF is Main Distribution Frame. The signal from Any-Media or DLC goes to the Main Distribution Frame. MDF has two sides 1. Primary Side and 2.Secondary Side. From the Any media the signals come on primary side (through wires) then through the jumper wire, primary side is connected to the secondary. Each connection has a particular tag in the primary side as well as in the secondary side. For the purpose of safety IPM (internal protection module) is provided on secondary side. IPM consists of a glow discharge tube and two fuses. From the secondary side signal goes to Pillar, Pillar to Sub Pillar, Sub-Pillar to DP and then DP to customerís instrument.
Reasons of Non Feasibility
1. DP is full.
2. DP is vacant but Sub Pillar is Full.
3. DP & Sub Pillar is not full but Primary is full.
4. Connection booked is in the range of Node (Node area).
5. No permission to install the DP, Sub Pillar, Pillar on the way.
6. No permission to install DP by the building owner.