Pervasive Computing

Discussion in 'Computer Science and IT Students' started by Guest, Jan 27, 2010.

  1. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Pervasive Computing

    Pervasive computing is a rapidly developing area of
    Information and Communications Technology (ICT). The
    term refers to the increasing integration of ICT into
    people’s lives and environments, made possible by the
    growing availability of microprocessors with inbuilt
    communications facilities. Pervasive computing has
    many potential applications, from health and home care
    to environmental monitoring and intelligent transport
    systems.

    Introduction
    Eight billion embedded microprocessors are produced
    each year. This number is expected to rise dramatically
    over the next decade, making electronic devices ever
    more pervasive. These devices will range from a few
    millimetres in size (small sensors) to several metres
    (displays and surfaces). They may be interconnected via
    wired and wireless technologies into broader, more
    capable, networks. Pervasive computing systems (PCS)
    and services may lead to a greater degree of user
    knowledge of, or control over, the surrounding
    environment, whether at home, or in an office or car.
    They may also show a form of ‘intelligence’. For instance,
    a ‘smart’ electrical appliance could detect its own
    impending failure and notify its owner as well as a
    maintenance company, to arrange a repair.

    Pervasive computing history
    Pervasive computing is the third wave of computing
    technologies to emerge since computers first appeared:
    • First Wave - Mainframe computing era: one computer
    shared by many people, via workstations.
    • Second Wave - Personal computing era: one computer
    used by one person, requiring a conscious interaction.
    Users largely bound to desktop.
    • Third Wave – Pervasive (initially called ubiquitous)
    computing era: one person, many computers. Millions
    of computers embedded in the environment, allowing
    technology to recede into the background.

    Pervasive computing technologies
    Pervasive computing involves three converging areas of
    ICT: computing (‘devices’), communications
    (‘connectivity’) and ‘user interfaces’.

    Devices
    PCS devices are likely to assume many different forms
    and sizes, from handheld units (similar to mobile phones)
    to near-invisible devices set into ‘everyday’ objects (like
    furniture and clothing). These will all be able to
    communicate with each other and act ‘intelligently’. Such
    devices can be separated into three categories:

    sensors: input devices that detect environmental
    changes, user behaviours, human commands etc;

    processors: electronic systems that interpret and
    analyse input-data;

    actuators: output devices that respond to processed
    information by altering the environment via electronic
    or mechanical means. For example, air temperature
    control is often done with actuators. However the term
    can also refer to devices which deliver information,
    rather than altering the environment physically.

    Applications for pervasive computing

    Pervasive computing could have a range of applications,
    many of which may not yet have been identified.
    Applications in healthcare, home care, transport and
    environmental monitoring are among the most frequently
    cited.


    Healthcare
    Pervasive computing offers opportunities for future
    healthcare provision in the UK, both for treating and
    managing disease, and for patient administration. For
    instance, remote sensors and monitoring technology
    might allow the continuous capture and analysis of
    patients’ physiological data. Medical staff could be
    immediately alerted to any detected irregularities. Data
    collection on this scale could also provide for more
    accurate pattern/trend analysis of long-term conditions
    such as heart disease, diabetes and epilepsy. Wearable
    sensors may offer greater patient mobility and freedom
    within hospitals and save both time and money by
    reducing the need for repeated and intrusive testing.

    Environmental monitoring

    Pervasive computing provides improved methods to
    monitor the environment. It will allow for continuous realtime
    data collection and analysis via remote, wireless
    devices. However, this poses significant challenges for
    PCS developers. Devices may be required to withstand
    harsh environmental conditions (such as heat, cold and
    humidity). There is also a risk that devices, once
    deployed, may prove too costly or impractical to recover;
    thus they will have to be cheap and, where possible,
    environmentally sensitive. Power is also a
    challenge as systems will need to operate over long
    periods of time, requiring high levels of energy efficiency
    and robust energy supplies.

    Intelligent transport systems

    Pervasive computing technologies are being employed in the
    development of intelligent transport systems.
    Such systems seek to bring together information
    and telecommunications technologies in a
    collaborative scheme to improve the safety, efficiency
    and productivity of transport networks. Electronic devices
    could be directly integrated into the transport infrastructure,
    and into vehicles themselves, with the aim of
    better monitoring and managing the movement of
    vehicles within road, rail, air and sea transport systems.
    Computers are already incorporated into modern cars via
    integrated mobile phone systems, parking sensors and
    complex engine management systems. Intelligent
    transport systems take this process further by introducing
    'intelligent' elements into vehicles. Vehicles could become
    capable of receiving and exchanging information ‘on the
    move’ via wireless technologies and be able to communicate
    with devices integrated into transport infrastructure,
    alerting drivers to traffic congestion, accident hotspots,
    and road closures.









  2. Guest

    Guest Guest

    prevasive computing semi

    Pervasive 2009, the Seventh International Conference on Pervasive Computing, was held on May 11-14, 2009 in Nara, Japan.

    This annual conference was the premier forum for researchers to present their latest results in all areas related to architecture, design, implementation, application and evaluation of pervasive computing.

    Pervasive 2009 included a highly selective single-track program for technical papers, accompanied by late-breaking result posters, videos, demonstrations, workshops, a doctoral colloquium and other events.
  3. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Pervasive computing is the trend towards increasingly ubiquitous (another name for the movement is ubiquitous computing), connected computing devices in the environment, a trend being brought about by a convergence of advanced electronic - and particularly, wireless - technologies and the Internet. Pervasive computing devices are not personal computers as we tend to think of them, but very tiny - even invisible - devices, either mobile or embedded in almost any type of object imaginable, including cars, tools, appliances, clothing and various consumer goods - all communicating through increasingly interconnected networks. According to Dan Russell, director of the User Sciences and Experience Group at IBM's Almaden Research Center, by 2010 computing will have become so naturalized within the environment that people will not even realize that they are using computers. Russell and other researchers expect that in the future smart devices all around us will maintain current information about their locations, the contexts in which they are being used, and relevant data about the users.

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