1. INTRODUCTION Development of necessary infrastructure and facilities at any tourist destination is the first and most important step in maximizing the tourist satisfaction and for the promotion of that destination itself as major tourist attraction. The objective of the deficiency study conducted by Madhya Pradesh Tourism was to identify the deficiencies in the tourist destination in terms of urban infrastructure, management of civic services including garbage and solid waste disposal, management and implementation of forest and environment related projects and up gradation of electrical and water supply system. 2. METHODOLOGY The survey was divided in three parts: * Primary survey of destination: A primary survey of the destination was done. The survey instrument was designed to examine the primary attributes/deficiencies in the urban infrastructure like rail/road/air connectivity, accommodation, transport system, food/beverage quality & availability, water electricity supply, information mechanism, etc. as well as secondary destination attributes like shopping complexes, multiplexes, flyovers, ropeways, signages, etc. * Reports & statements of the government department/authorities concerned: The study instrument was designed to get first hand information from all the concerned departments/authorities like rail, road, air, forest, M.P. Ecotourism Development Board, District Collector office, Municipal Corporation, concerned voluntary organizations, etc regarding their developmental projects under implementation or under pipeline for the development of the destination. * Visitor survey: Random and unbiased visitor survey from the cross-section of visitors available at the destination was also done to get their feedback and suggestions. I GENERAL INFORMATION 1.1. Place BANDHAVGARH 1.2. District Umaria 1.3. Location Umaria district is located to the North East of Madhya Pradesh. 1.4. Latitude 23.30 N (of Umaria) 1.5. Longitude 80.53 E (of Umaria) 1.6. Area 694.682 Sq. KM. (Core Area) 437 Sq. KM. (Buffer Area) 105 Sq. KM. (Open Area for Tourist) 1.7. Population Total 515963, (26800 Total Only Umaria) 1.8. Literacy Total 59.10 % Male 72.10% Female 44.50% 1.9. Gram Panchayat/ Nagar Panchayat Gram Panchayat 1.10. Places of Tourist Interest Bandhavgarh Fort : Bandhavgarh is the name of tehsil in Umaria District. Formerly it was the capital of the Bandhavgarh Kingdom of the Magha dynasty, then the head-quarters of the tehsil. At present its headquarters is Umaria. The fort of Bandhavgarh is a place of considerable archaeological and historical importance. It is a natural impregnable fort and stands on a hill, at an attitude of about 2430 metres above sea-level. The Bamnia hill is also a part of the fort, because it is enclosed by a rampart. The fort is on the Rewa-Umaria road, at a distance of about 41Km from Umaria Town. National Park : Bandhavgarh is a new National Park with a very long history. Set among the Vindhya hills of Madhya Pradesh with an area of 168sq miles (437sq kms) it contains a wide variety of habitats and a high density of game, including a large number of Tigers. This is also the White tiger country. These have been found in the old state of Rewa for many years. The last known was captured by Maharaja Martand Singh in 1951. This white Tiger, Mohun is now stuffed and on display in the Palace of Maharaja of Rewa. Geography Flora & Fauna : There are 32 hills in this part of the park, which has a large natural fort at its center. The fort's cliffs are 2625 feet (800 meters) high, 1000 feet (300 meters) above the surrounding countryside. Over half the area is covered by Sal forest although on the upper slope it is replaced by mixed forest of sal, saj, dhobin, and saja. Winter temperatures (Nov-mid-February) vary from almost freezing at night to around 68 degree Fahrenheit in the daytime. Summer nights are also cooler than the daytime temperature, which rises to 104 degree Fahrenheit. This park is closed during the breeding season, which coincides with the monsoon (July-October). Rainfall in the park averages 50 inches (120cm) per year. 1.11. History : Bandhagarh National Park is a Park with a rich historical past. Prior to becoming a national park, the forests around Bandhavgarh had long been maintained as a Shikargah, or game preserve, of the Maharajas and their guests. In 1947 Rewa State was merged with Madhya Pradesh; Bandhavgarh came under the regulations of Madhya Pradesh. The Maharaja of Rewa still retained the hunting rights. No special conservation measures were taken until 1968, when the areas were constituted as a national park. Since then, numerous steps have been taken to retain Bandhavgarh National Park as an unspoilt natural habitat. The tourism zone of the park that is regarded by most people, as 'Bandhavgarh' is actually a small part of the reserve. This 105 km². Of Jungle, known as Tala range, is richest in terms of biodiversity and yes –tigers, but there are four more ranges in the reserve namely –Magdhi, Kallwah, Khitauli and Panpatha. Together, these five ranges comprise the 'Core' of the Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve – a total area of 694 km². There is then, the 'buffer' as well. The buffer is spread over the forest divisions of Umaria and Katni and totals another 437 km². The legal status as a national park dates back to 1968, but was enjoyed by only the present Tala range for a considerable length of time. It was only in 1993 that the present scheme of things was put in place. THE INVALUABLE HERITAGE The park : Bandhavgarh (the present Tala Range) enjoyed almost complete protection under the Maharajas of Rewa during the pre-independence era. The jungle though had a price to pay for the considerable protection afforded by the Maharajas, Bandhavgarh was a declared game reserve and the Royal family exclusive hunting privileges. The protection afforded to the Park by the Rajahs ensured that the forest would change hands to the next generation. And after state reorganization in 1956, it didn't take long for the State of Madhya Pradesh to realize the ecological importance Park in 1968 * The caves 'There are 39 caves in the Bandhavgarh fort and in the surrounding hillocks up to a radius of about 5 km. The oldest cave is of 1st century. Several caves carry inscriptions in Brahmi script. Some caves have embossed figure such as those of tiger, pig, elephant and horseman. Badi gufa, the largest cave, has broad entrance, nine small rooms and several pillars. It has been dated back to the 10th century. The cave appears to be primitive lacking the elaborate statues and carvings seen in the caves of Buddhist period. Its purpose remains mystery. * The Fort No records are available to show when Bandhavgarh fort was constructed. It is thought, however, to be some 2000 years old, and there are references to it in the ancient books, the "Narad-Panch Ratra" and the 'Shiva Purana". Various dynasties have ruled the fort: for example, The Mauryans from 3rd century BC, Vakataka rulers from 3rd to 5th century the Sengars from 5th century and the Kalachuris from 10th century. In the 13th century, the Baghels took over, ruling from Bandhavgarh until 1617, when Maharaja Vikramaditya Singh moved his capital to Rewa. The last inhabitants deserted the fort in 1935. MAKING OF A TIGER LAND The Maharajas of Rewa, as historians would call Baghels realized that a most marvelous jungle had sprung up around the deserted fort of Bandhavgarh and that large and fierce beasts of strength roamed within its folds. Chivalry was the most prized virtue of Rajput Kings, and what nobler proof could be furthered for its possession than slaying of the most ferocious all the beasts – the Tiger! So, Bandhavgarh was declared a game reserve with only the royal family having rights of hunting the fierce animal. But, they put the fence rather high, so far as Chivalry.