A Model for Faculty Accreditation for benchmark with Global B-School Teaching Fraternity

Discussion in 'CAT / MBA INDIA Forum' started by krishna, May 14, 2013.

  1. krishna

    krishna Banned

    Question of Faculty Assessment in Management Education:
    A Model for Faculty Accreditation for benchmark with Global B-School Teaching Fraternity


    Abstract

    Accreditation is the process of monitoring, assessing and evaluating the standards and quality of education a student receives at a college, university, or other institution of higher learning. Accreditation provides a strong belief to the student that the education they are paying is valuable and worthwhile. There are organizations in India and internationally which accredit institution and their programmes. Faculty profile and their research publications help the institution to get accredited. In India, there are more than 3000 business schools producing over 2-3 lakhs management graduates every year. Imagine the number of management faculty who are part of these institutions as facilitators of management education. When the question comes of faculty accreditation in India, there is only one organization, i.e.: AIMA, which accredits the faculty of management3.

    The Proposal is to facilitate additional dialogue of standards and rigorous evaluation criteria within the context of maintaining high academic contribution by faculty. The faculty is academically qualified, but one also looks at their professional qualification in different academic components to have overall quality standards. The Accreditation principle lies on the platform that, apart from degree, multiple categories of Academic activities and/or outcomes that may support qualification including Professional activity, Professional development, Intellectual contribution, academic contribution, et al. are the key to demonstrate the credentials as Quality faculty.

    The present paper emphasizes that with the accreditation of institutes and programmes, there is also a strong need of faculty accreditation at a larger level, with reputable councils and competent authority on higher education taking the initiative of accrediting management faculty to establish and certify as a certified teacher in the field of management education. The paper elaborates upon the need for accreditation and a model developed for accrediting management faculty for all the B-Schools. It also looks into procedure, process and the methodology to be adopted.

    Key Words: Accreditation, Performance Measurement, Evaluation, Professional Qualification

    Introduction:

    There is lot of debate and discussion in improving education system and the delivery of education Pedagogy across the globe. All discussion focuses on the areas like infrastructure, facilities, library, faculty in-put and the like.

    There are several surveys which speak about Ranking of B-Schools based on certain parameters like infrastructure, knowledge delivery, corporate interface, placements, and pedagogy approach apart from Intellectual generation, paper publication, paper presentation, book published and the like. Even Audits are conducted from time to time to verify the standards maintained in these areas (ISO Audits). Further, surveys focus on facilities available like canteen, recreational facilities, health care, wi-fi, laptops, apart from organizing Industrial visits, corporate guest faculty, soft skills training, student - faculty exchange, tie-up-MOU and the like. Further, when the discussion is focused in area of faculty contribution, focus is on PhD degree, paper presentation, and foreign visits, students-faculty ratio, MDPs, formal feedback system, apart from post-doctoral work. The most crucial area like "Accreditation of Faculty" is never brought to the table of discussion nor figures in any of the process or audit, per se. If we look at the surveys and ranking of any B-School, there has not been a subject of "Accreditation" of the faculty as a criteria and points defined. When, every other area in education requires accreditation and ISO certification including publications in ISBN and ISSN journals, faculty accreditation as a system for assessing and evaluating faculty contribution for overall development of student and academia should be part of assessment, contribution and evaluation. Infact, NET/SET, M.Phil, and PhD are the pre-requirements which certify the with the eligible qualification. In that case, Accreditation should be a step further for quality academic review and honoring professional qualification and contribution along with academic qualification.

    Accreditation: The Paradox for Excellence:

    A layman's understanding of Accreditation is the establishment of the status, legitimacy or appropriateness of an institution, programme (i.e. composite of modules) or module of study. The Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA, 2001) describes Accreditation as the process of external quality review used in higher education to scrutinize colleges, universities, and higher education programmes for quality assurance and quality improvement. Success of any educational school results in an accredited institution and/or programmes. The Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE 2010) has a narrower definition; i.e. Accreditation is the approval of a higher education course by an authorized body. Chernays (1990) definition is rather more specific: Accreditation assures the educational community, the general public, and other agencies or organisations that an institution or programme: (a) has clearly defined educationally appropriate objectives, (b) maintains conditions under which their achievement can reasonably be expected, (c) is infact accomplishing them substantially, and (d) can be expected to continue to do so. Similarly, the Universal Council for Online Education Accreditation (2003) states that: 'Accreditation is a system or process for providing public confidence and a tool for improvement used by educational institutions'. It promises a basic level of quality in an educational institution through a process that examines a school's faculty, course content, recruiting practices, admission procedures, and more. The purpose of accreditation is to ensure quality education programs through the use of standards and rigorous evaluation criteria; to stimulate institutions towards higher levels of quality and efficiency; and to provide a system for public trust and accountability. For example, in Hungary, prioritise professional accreditation, which states that it is a process of certifying the quality and standards of educational provision carried out by institutions, and judging the suitability of provision in institutions for conferring professional status on the holders of degree qualifications from those institutions.

    Importance of Accreditation:

    Accreditation is the tool to evaluate the standards and quality of the education a student receives at a college, university, or other institution of higher learning. Accreditation speaks about one's reputation and highest discipline in academic field. While a student who attends an accredited college or university is fine with his or her way of receiving a quality education, students should remember that a college or university's accreditation does not automatically guarantee a student's success. It is up to the individual student to make the most out of the education he or she recieves. But, if many students attending a college or university are not successful, and do not demonstrate a high level of educational performance, an accreditation organization may need to step into and examine the effectiveness of the institution and evaluate what aspects can be improved. Infact, if one divides equally the stake holders in providing the Quality Education Deliverables, then 'Faculty' forms the major percentage in this segment. All the knowledge workers (faculty) have to leverage learning curve and intellectual capital for growth. This is possible only with quality inputs by faculty, continuous innovation and the delivery system along with contribution in various facets of academic areas.

    The Stake Holders Advantage:

    As a Student: Accreditation provides an assurance to a student that the programme in which he or she is enrolled in or is considering to enroll in, is engaged in a continuous review and improvement of its quality, content delivery that matches the national /international standards in the profession, and that it is accountable for achieving what is anticipated to achieve.

    As a Faculty Member: Accreditation provides a formal process for ongoing evaluation and improvement of the programme and faculty development outcomes, a process by which faculty, students and administration can work together in advancing the educational institution's mission.

    As a Management Teacher: Accreditation provides a forum in which educators and practitioners of management can exchange ideas on future needs of the profession and the ways which address these needs in professional education and training.

    As a Member of the Public: Accreditation ensures public accountability of a programme or an institution -- that it has the means and demonstrates the outcomes for its educational process that are consistent with its goals and objectives (American Psychological Association, 2010).

    As an Alumnus: The credit what one gets wherever one is placed reflects in ones quality of work. This is sure because of ones academic programme accreditation. Corporate is also assured of contribution and positive financial gains because of the rigorous training received from accredited programme/institutes/colleges.

    As an International Community: It assures of the outcomes at global level, and a deep belief for global corporation that the human resource/student will be recruiting is of good standard, quality and assured return on investment (ROI) and right selection.
  2. krishna

    krishna Banned

    GAP Analysis:

    In India we have currently more than 3000 business schools producing over 2-3 lakhs management graduates every year (Times of India, 25th July, 2011) and this analysis makes us realize the huge number of management faculty, who are involved in teaching in these institutions and who are the actual facilitators of management education. They become a very crucial section of the community when an institution is accredited, but then what really matters is their recognition as management faculty. Is there a way by which they are formally recognized for their professional excellence and get certified for their professional credentials? Academic grades are given due credit and because of that, they are in the process of imparting management education, per se. When it comes to the question of professional excellence, contribution and quality delivery, there should be an honor of recognition, opportunity for reflection and award for their contributions in different academic domains .This is where researchers felt that there is a need, that some more organizations like AIMA or similar competent authority in Higher Education should take the initiative to recognize management faculty by adopting a procedure and analyzing them on certain parameters which evaluates them for their expertise as management teachers, thus, recognizing and confirming Professional Status – a stamp for excellence & quality.

    To add, such recognized faculty can add more value & quality to the institutions, and this is where ' accreditation' will recognize their ability to provide quality education as this is the area where Indian institutes are struggling. It is also proposed that the institutes should also get extra weightage during audits/assessment by NAAC / NBA or other International bodies for having more number of accredited teachers in their schools/departments. This accreditation of management faculty should be recognized in India and worldwide as an honored award to faculty credentials for academic excellence. Infact, the ranking agencies and the NBA/NAAC should stress high points/scores on Accredited Teachers certification while grading/ranking the B-Schools.

    Present Practices of Accreditation:

    The present practice of accreditation is done in the areas of curricular aspects, teaching-learning evaluation, research, consultancy and extension, infrastructure, student support and progression, governance, leadership and Innovative practices. The various ways through which accreditation is done in areas include Institution, Programmes, Academic environment, Student Development, Faculty Development and Pedagogy/Pedagogical tools, and the like. The quality is assessed and accredited by recognized institutes like NAAC - accredits institutions of higher education in the country; and NBA provides accreditation to the technical colleges under AICTE, apart from the International accreditation agencies, that award accreditation for professional programmes and academic units in particular fields of study.

    Faculty Accreditation- Differentiating is Key:

    With increased number of B-Schools in India, there are, however, possibilities especially for the B-Schools to differentiate themselves in this monopolistically competitive market. Infact, the customers of these B-Schools can look at alternatives to make their choices meaningful. There is dearth of PhD qualified faculty in most B-Schools. Even, if some schools do have PhD qualified faculty, their continuous engagement in research is significantly low compared to their top ranked counter parts as well as those compared to universities elsewhere in the world.

    Business schools imparting quality education can only excel and produce competent future business managers who can take on challenges to perform in the changing business environment. It is true that differentiating factor for a good management institute is the 'quality faculty' . It is absolutely essential for any management institute to be abreast of the happenings in the present business environment, develop strategies for continuous development, and improve quality faculties as the drivers for this. Infact, most of the B-Schools are driven by well qualified and well trained faculty, who go beyond their academic qualification and reflect true Professionalism. Hence, there is a need to differentiate themselves and cut an edge over other B-Schools in terms of Quality Faculty, who are certified and accredited for their Academic performance and qualitative differences and contribution.

    Need for Faculty Accreditation:

    Seriously there is the need for Accreditation of Faculty in education sector. Accreditation is the Professional status awarded to the faculty for exceeding the stated standards in academic performance. This Accreditation specifies that, in addition to Masters and Doctorate; one becomes a certified and an Accredited Teacher for the Professional excellence and contribution in ones area of expertise. On the other side, there could be less assurance that, a person with master's and Doctorate degrees need not be proved as Best Teacher. And, also there may be same instances of people who proved themselves as best teacher without a formal Doctorate Degree. In light of this observation, Accreditation of teachers with specially designed process of evaluating the educational and professional contribution of management faculty to education field is the need of the hour. Apart from academic qualification, one should have Professional Qualification too. Infact, while looking at positions and responsibilities of Dean/Director of B-school, Faculty Accreditation requirement should be one criteria for short listing the candidates for the position, per se.

    Other than AIMA, there is no other organization which has this formal system and process of Faculty Accreditation in India. The need is high, and with a fine scientific procedure and assessment parameters, India will have the best of best management professionals to teach India's future generation.

    Thus, when we say Faculty Accreditation, we necessarily mean:

    1. Exceeding stated standards of quality performance in academics and related academic areas
    2. Production of Intellectual contributions and Professional Development
    3. The need for maintaining Academic Qualification and also the Professional Qualification, and
    4. On entering at very senior leadership roles and higher levels in academics (Dean/ Director), an Accredited teacher on the resume will stand out more to employer than one of questionable integrity.

    Model for Faculty Accreditation:

    The standing of individual academic credentials is evaluated through NET/SET, PhD, publications, et al. to determine eligibility for lectureship and for award of Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) for Indian nationals in order to ensure minimum standards for the entrants in the teaching profession and research.

    A step further should be the Accreditation of Faculty for academic contribution and eligibility for higher positions in Academic field. Faculty should be seen as somebody involved in the overall development of the students, institution as well as the community. They are the change agents in any society. Therefore, evaluation and assessment of faculty for accreditation should be holistic considering their contribution in all the areas, which effect economic development of the nation. When we say all the areas, we definitely mean the contribution that the faculty as a faculty can undertake and the areas should be Teaching, Discovery, Integration of Knowledge and Service.

    Faculty for accreditation process will be judged in each of these four areas (within the context of superior accomplishment), with an opportunity for reflections:

    a. A record of superior accomplishment in the scholarship of TEACHING should contain clear and compelling evidence related to Academic Development: (i) instruction; and (ii) student development and learning, which may include teaching, best practices adopted, case development, monograph and the publication of text books.

    b. A record of superior accomplishment in the scholarship of DISCOVERY should contain clear and compelling evidence related to: (i) scholarly works (objective, subjective, and/or artistic); and (ii) scholarly activities (new knowledge and research), which include publications, projects and PhD guidance, member of advisory board of journals, reviewers of papers, patents, copyrights, editor of professional journals, editorial review board member, associate editor, and the like.

    c. A record of superior accomplishment in the scholarship of KNOWLEDGE INTEGRATION should contain clear and compelling evidence related to: (i) curricular development, which includes the nominee's discipline in larger interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary contexts; and (ii) meaningful connections between a nominee's discovery and teaching. This may include collaborative work by nominee for consultancy, corporate networking and international visiting assignments, post doctoral contribution, advisory board on international journals and other such assignments.

    d. A record of superior accomplishment in the scholarship of service should contain clear and compelling evidence related to: the application of knowledge and expertise in the broader contexts of (i) institution building; (ii) community/society; and (iii) professional service. This may include administration responsibility and positions held, member of any functional committee of the institute, academic excellence areas like fellowships, associateships, awards/scholarships, certifications, membership to professional bodies, International conferences held, support in instituting a 'Chair', et al.
  3. krishna

    krishna Banned

    The Model: A Proposed System

    A fool proof procedure and system should be in place. Based upon a holistic approach of academic and related areas of faculty contribution, a model has been proposed for Professional Accreditation of Management Faculty. These are the areas where faculty can contribute significantly, and demonstrate superior and differentiating work.

    Eligibility:

    All those faculty/teachers, who are into teaching in management schools with PhD from a recognized university, are eligible for the Professional Accreditation Teacher (PAT) award. Further, a full time teaching experience at PG level with 5 years should be mandatory. The experience in teaching at PG level should be considered equal to the corporate experience at middle management level. SOP-Statement of Purpose of getting PAT may be justified.



    The Assessment Criteria scale and sub parameters could be designed as specified below:

    Table No.1: Professional Accreditation Teacher (PAT) Model


    Sl No.

    Areas

    Sub Area/Measures

    Minimum Score Requirement/
    Against Maximum Marks

    Marks obtained

    1

    Academic Development
    300 points

    1.1. Teaching Best Practices adopted/ New delivery mode
    1.2. Course Development - Off-On-line /Introduction/shaping curriculum
    1.3. Case development
    1.4.Monographs / Text books
    1.5. Executive Education

    75/150
    20/40
    25/50
    15/30
    15/30


    2

    Administration and positions
    50 points

    2.1. Responsibility held
    2.2. Position held
    2.3. Committees / Councils
    2.4.Board Member
    2.5. Support in Instituting Chair of Excellence / Establishing Centre of Excellence

    7.5/15
    5/10
    5/10
    5/10
    2.5/5


    3

    Intellectual Contribution
    200 points

    3.1. Research Publication
    3.2. Projects
    3.3. PhD guidance
    3.4. PhD Awarded
    3.5.Advisory Board on Journals, including Editor / Reviewer of papers
    3.6. Patents and copyrights
    3.7. Working papers

    25/50
    20/40
    15/30
    12.5/25
    7.5/15
    15/30
    5/10


    4

    MOU/Collabora tion, and Consultancy
    100 points

    4.1. Consultancy
    4.2. Corporate network
    4.3. Training held for academics
    4.4. Training held for corporate
    4.5. Industry based projects

    15/30
    5/10
    10/20
    10/20
    10/20


    5

    International Assignment and Network
    150 points

    5.1. Visiting Assignments
    5.2. Collaboration Partnership
    5.3. Post-Doctoral work
    5.4. Fellowship
    5.5. Scholarship
    5.6. Conference and Workshops organized

    15/30
    10/20
    20/40
    10/20
    05/10
    15/30


    6

    Social Responsibility towards Nation
    100 points

    6.1.Association with NGO's or Red Cross or CRY
    6.2. Social impact projects
    6.3. Work at School level
    6.4. Economic Development Activity or rural development work
    6.5. Teach India Program

    10/20
    10/20
    10/20
    10/20
    10/20


    7

    Supporting Academic Excellence areas / Off campus activity
    100 points

    7.1.Associateship
    7.2. National/ State Awards/ Fellowship/Scholarship
    7.3. Certifications and competency enhancement courses
    7.4. Membership and positions to Professionals Bodies
    7.5. Cultural/ Sports promotion

    5/10
    20/40
    15/30
    05/10
    05/10


    8

    Any Other Contributions to mention
    10 points

    Contributions towards Innovation@work;newer ideas and systems; creating great place to work; interests and hobbies, etc
    Could also be the scores of TOFEL,GMAT, GRE

    00/10
    No minimum points required



    Qualifying Grade or Points Cut-Off: The minimum eligibility criteria points for qualifying preliminary stage to next stage could be 50% of the maximum marks (1000), which also requires 50% marks in all the sub parameters too, based upon the review of nomination application filed by the nominee for the award of accreditation ( as per the annexure 1). Considering nominees' accomplishments within Assessment parameters [The total qualifying points 501+ onwards]; or Qualify in each area with 50% of total points; or Qualify in each section with 50% of total points. At the discretion of Experts and Scrutiny team, higher points than the points assigned may be evaluated based on the merit of work, per se. But, a minimum point to qualify holds as is defined.
    Selection Panel:

    In India, the stake holders for the Management Education are the UGC, AICTE, and Local Affiliated University, including Deemed Universities/institutions. The committee may have representatives and experts from these councils. On macro thinking, representatives from National/ State Knowledge Commission, State Innovative Council, IIM, IIT, AIU, National Mission on Education, National Institute of Advanced Studies, AIMA, Local Management Association, NASCCOM, NHRD, AIMS-Association of Indian Management Schools, IIAS, and university representatives may form part of selection team/Board. Further, a call can also be taken from corporate houses that have done significant noteworthy academic work like Infosys Leadership Institutes, WIPRO, et al. There could also be International Faculty team / panel and institutes like Sloan School of Management, Harvard Business School, Michigan State University, London School of Business, Asian Institute of Management, SIM and other institutes of international repute may be involved.
  4. krishna

    krishna Banned

    JAIN University - PAT

    The Structure:

    This is a hypothetical example, in case the JAIN University implements this Accreditation to MBA faculty of all the MBA Schools in the State initially, followed by India level later.


    Nodal Centre – JAIN University

    Advisory/ Working team

    JAIN University -Regional Office
    Bangalore
    Selection Committee/ Team
    Representatives
    AIU
    AICTE- Council of Management Education
    UGC
    NIAS
    Knowledge Commission
    Experts from IIM/IIT/etc
    International Faculty
    Industry Body
    Research Institutes
    Institute of National Importance
    Central Advisory Board of Education
    National Council for Technical Education
    Consultants
    Any other

    JAIN University - Regional Office
    Belgaum
    Selection Committee/ Team
    Representatives
    AIU
    AICTE- Council of Management Education
    UGC
    NIAS
    Knowledge Commission
    Experts from IIM/IIT/etc
    International Faculty
    Industry Body
    Research Institutes
    Institute of National Importance
    Central Advisory Board of Education
    National Council for Technical Education
    Consultants
    Any other

    JAIN University - Regional Office
    Mysore
    Selection Committee/ Team
    Representatives
    AIU
    AICTE- Council of Management Education
    UGC
    NIAS
    Knowledge Commission
    Experts from IIM/IIT/etc
    International Faculty
    Industry Body
    Research Institutes
    Institute of National Importance
    Central Advisory Board of Education
    National Council for Technical Education
    Consultants
    Any other

    JAIN University - Regional Office
    Gulbarga
    Selection Committee/ Team
    Representatives
    AIU
    AICTE- Council of Management Education
    UGC
    NIAS
    Knowledge Commission
    Experts from IIM/IIT/etc
    International Faculty
    Industry Body
    Research Institutes
    Institute of National Importance
    Central Advisory Board of Education
    National Council for Technical Education
    Consultants
    Any other


    These are Revenue division in Karnataka State

    The Selection process shall comprise of two major (2) stages:
    Stage 1: Peer Review Stage: The eligible candidates can be short listed based on the parameter as defined in table No.1 by a peer review panel, comprised of independent reviewers selected from the above mentioned high level committee.

    Peer reviewers will select the nominees for second stage after the blind review by:

    • Considering nominees' accomplishments within the context of the filed application by the nominee
    • Reviewers use criteria from Nomination Guidelines as basis for evaluation; beyond these criteria, use their discretion in distinguishing the nominees.

    Stage 2: Final Review Stage: This stage should comprise of two processes, which includes presentation and interview.

    I. Presentation

    There could be 20 minutes presentation on the subject of expertise by the candidate. The presentation could focus on the specialization in which the candidate wishes to get accredited as mentioned in the broader areas of specialization, and the maximum points assigned are 100.

    II. Interview

    Interview with the Panel of experts, Chaired by a chair person and comprises of Members of Academic-Research Community, Leaders of Business Community and Government chosen from the above mentioned high level committee. The panel of experts should reflect the specialization of the person for meaningful interaction and engaged discussion. This could be for 20 minutes leading to the final selection for accreditation award and the maximum points assigned are 100.

    Accredited Teacher

    The Committee/Council/ Panel would decide on the number of Accreditation each year that it would be awarding. After going through both the steps of selection, a list would be put up amongst the top candidates based on the decided number of Accreditation Award each year. A total consolidate points obtained in all the steps will be the final count for Professional Accreditation Teacher– PAT Award certification . Once it is certified, it holds good as long as the Individual feels the need to have Re-Accreditation. Otherwise, the process should be held once and the certificate with" No expiry" can be awarded to keep the excellence in work on continuous long term period.

    Post Accreditation Utility:

    The Accredited faculty is eligible and preference may be given to be part of several Academic excellence areas, like:

    1) Member of Board of Studies and Board of Examiners
    2) Member, Paper steers for different courses
    3) Eligible to guide Project work of MBA
    4) Eligible to get grants and Research funding from University
    5) Eligible to be part of Board/Member/knowledge commission or any other state level board
    6) Eligible for overseas travel grants, if any
    7) Eligible to be part of member, LIC Committee of university, any other ad-hoc committee
    8) Corporate may call Accreditation teachers for offerings of MDP, Consultancy, and design of training tools and programs

    Directory:

    A Directory may be published as part of database. Since, UGC is planning to have a directory of eligible persons as database for "VC" positions, on similar lines; a database of Accredited Teacher may be formulated, and called as Professional Accreditation Teacher - PAT. The University may send this database for all the colleges/institutes and management including Board of Director, for their available manpower information of quality faculty. Infact, a step further could be the service rendered by JAIN University in advising institutes and their management of eligible candidates for Dean/Director for their B-Schools.

    End Note: Quality of Faculty - A Big Task:

    Over the years, with several thousand students opting for Management education, the number is expected to increase further in coming years. Acknowledging the importance of B-Schools in shaping-up Management professionals for the India Inc., it is vital to look at quality of faculty. The very objective of setting the entire process of PAT is to focus on high standards, quality output of faculty and continuous contribution. An Accreditation is a step towards ensuring ongoing academic excellence and professional status of faculty,
    per se. The face value of Accreditation globally can also increase the brand equity of the person, in terms of International visibility, connectivity and collaborations.

    Since, NET, PhD, Paper publication in ISBN / ISSN, are part of continuous evaluation of faculty work in India, Accreditation is an attempt in this regard. Since, Accreditation is part of most academic institutes elsewhere, one need to look at this process as another attempt to prove the academic credentials of Professionally Qualified Faculty. Infact, all the higher positions and responsibilities in Academic Institutes should stress the requirement of Faculty Accreditation Certification.

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